In recent years, academics and policymakers have increasingly recognized that the full societal value of vaccination encompasses broad health, economic, and social benefits beyond avoided morbidity and mortality due to infection by the targeted pathogen and limited health care costs . Nevertheless, standard economic evaluations of vaccines continue to focus on a relatively narrow set of health-centric benefits, with consequences for vaccination policies and public investments.The COVID-19 pandemic illustrates in stark terms the multiplicity and magnitude of harms that infectious diseases may inflict on society . COVID-19 has overtaxed health systems, disrupted routine immunization programs, forced school and workplace closures, impeded the operation of international supply chains, suppressed aggregate demand, and exacerbated existing social inequities.The obvious nature of the pandemic's broad effects could conceivably convince more policymakers to identify and account for the full societal impacts of infectious disease when evaluating the potential benefits of vaccination . Such a shift could make a big difference in how we allocate societal resources in the service of population health and in how much we stand to gain from that spending . (Am J Public Health . Published online ahead of print April 15 , 2021: e1-e6 . https: //doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.306114).