The development of vaccines is one of the greatest medical interventions in the history of global infectious diseases and has contributed to the annual saving of at least 2 to 3 million lives worldwide . However, many diseases are not preventable through currently available vaccines, and the potential of modulating the immune response during vaccination has not been fully exploited . The first golden age of vaccines was based on the germ theory and the use of live, attenuated, inactivated pathogens or toxins . New strategies and formulations (e.g., adjuvants) with an immunomodulatory capacity to enhance the protective qualities and duration of vaccines have been incompletely exploited . These strategies can prevent disease and improve protection against infectious diseases, modulate the course of some noncommunicable diseases, and increase the immune responses of patients at a high risk of infection, such as the elderly or immunocompromised patients . In this minireview, we focus on how metabolic and epigenetic modulators can amplify and enhance the function of immunity in a given vaccine . We propose the term``amplifier"for such additives, and we pose that future vaccines will have three components: antigen, adjuvant, and amplifier.