OBJECTIVE: To clarify which variables are associated with the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among homeless individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic . STUDY
DESIGN: Cross-sectional research .
METHODS: Data were taken from the Hamburg survey of homeless individuals (n = 151). HRQoL was assessed using the EQ-5D tool . More precisely, the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire was used to quantify problems in five health dimensions (i.e . mobility, self-care, usually activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression), and its visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) was used to record the according self-rated health status . Explanatory variables include sex, age, education, marital status, country of origin, health insurance, and chronic alcohol consumption .
RESULTS: With regard to HRQoL, most frequently, problems were reported as pain/discomfort (47.3 %), followed by anxiety/depression (32.4 %), mobility (29.7 %), usual activities (20.7 %) and self-care (4.6 %). The mean EQ-VAS score was 75.34 (SD 22.23; range 1-100), and the mean EQ-5D-5L index was 0.84 (SD 0.23; range 0.32-1). Regressions showed increasing problems in mobility and self-care with higher age, whereas EQ-VAS was positively associated with younger age . Furthermore, EQ-5D-5L index was positively associated with younger age and higher education . Summarized, among this cohort, a higher age is associated with a lower HRQoL .
CONCLUSION: Remarkably high EQ-VAS values and rather few problems in the five dimensions investigated here were reported among the homeless individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic particularly compared with the general population . Moreover, study findings particularly stress the link between higher age and lower HRQoL among homeless individuals . This knowledge is important to address homeless individuals at risk of poor HRQoL . Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the given findings.