Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by an unpredictable disease course, with variable presentations of different organ systems . The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are highly variable ranging from mild presentations to severe, life-threatening symptoms and the wide individual variability may be due to the broad heterogeneity in the underlying pathologies (Okediji et al. , 2020  ). There is no doubt that early management may have a major influence on the outcome . This led the scientists to search for ways to monitor disease progression or to predict outcomes in COVID-19 . Although it is not yet possible to predict who will progress to the severe forms or in what time, numerous prospective and longitudinal studies represent the evidence for determining the potential immunological risk factors of COVID-19 critical disease and death . The kinetics and breadth of immune responses during COVID-19 appear to follow a trend which is consistent to the predominant pathological alterations (Akhtar , 2020  ). Recent publications have used these biomarkers to help identify patients who will develop the severe acute COVID-19 . Of particular interest is the relationship between the kinetics of peripheral leukocytes and clinical progress of the disease in COVID-19 . Although research is ongoing in this area, we present details about the current status of the evaluation . Understanding of the COVID-19 related alterations of the innate and adaptive immune responses may help to promote the vaccine development and immunological interventions.