Background: There is a lack of biomarkers validated for assessing clinical deterioration in COVID-19 patients upon presentation to secondary or tertiary care . This evaluation looked at the potential clinical application of a range of biomarkers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and Procalcitonin (PCT) and Mid-Regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), and White Cell Count to support prediction of clinical outcomes .
Methods: Adult patients presenting to Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust between April and June 2020 confirmed to have COVID-19 via RT-qPCR were included . Biomarkers were measured in blood samples taken within 24 hours of admission and logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were used to predict disease progression . The endpoints assessed were 30-day all-cause mortality, intubation and ventilation, admission to critical care and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) use . Findings: A total of 135 adult patients were identified . Elevated levels of MR-proADM were shown to have the greatest ability to predict 30-day mortality adjusting for age, cardiovascular disease, renal disease and neurological disease . A significant association was also noted between raised MR-proADM and CRP concentrations and the requirement for critical care admission and non-invasive ventilation, when controlling for covariates . Interpretation: The measurement of biomarkers, particularly MR-proADM and CRP in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection upon admission to secondary care shows significant potential to support clinicians in the early identification of those at increased risk of disease progression and need for higher level care, subsequently enabling prompt escalation in clinical interventions and treatment.