Since the emergence of COVID-19, a series of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) has been implemented by governments and public health authorities worldwide to control and curb the ongoing pandemic spread . From that perspective, Belarus is one of a few countries with a relatively modern healthcare system, where much narrower NPIs have been put in place . Given the uniqueness of this Belarusian experience, the understanding its COVID-19 epidemiological dynamics is essential not only for the local assessment, but also for a better insight into the impact of different NPI strategies globally . In this work, we integrate genomic epidemiology and surveillance methods to investigate the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the country . The observed Belarusian SARS-CoV-2 genetic diversity originated from at least eighteen separate introductions, at least five of which resulted in ongoing domestic transmissions . The introduction sources represent a wide variety of regions, although the proportion of regional virus introductions and exports from/to geographical neighbors appears to be higher than for other European countries . Phylodynamic analysis indicates a moderate reduction in the effective reproductive number R_e after the introduction of limited NPIs, with the reduction magnitude generally being lower than for countries with large-scale NPIs . On the other hand, the estimate of the Belarusian R_e at the early epidemic stage is comparable with this number for the neighboring ex-USSR country of Ukraine, where much broader NPIs have been implemented . The actual number of cases by the end of May , 2020 was predicted to be 2-9 times higher than the detected number of cases.