INTRODUCTION:: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has infected more than 9,834,513 Brazilians up to February 2021. Knowledge of risk factors of coronavirus disease among Brazilians remains scarce, especially in the adult population. This study verified the risk factors for intensive care unit admission and mortality for coronavirus disease among 20-59-year-old Brazilians. METHODS:: A Brazilian database on respiratory illness was analyzed on October 9, 2020, to gather data on age, sex, ethnicity, education, housing area, and comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for coronavirus disease. RESULTS:: Overall, 1,048,575 persons were tested for coronavirus disease; among them, 43,662 were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 34,704 patients died. Male sex (odds ratio=1.235 and 1.193), obesity (odds ratio=1.941 and 1.889), living in rural areas (odds ratio=0.855 and 1.337), and peri-urban areas (odds ratio=1.253 and 1.577) were predictors of intensive care unit admission and mortality, respectively. Cardiovascular disease (odds ratio=1.552) was a risk factor for intensive care unit admission. Indigenous people had reduced chances (odds ratio=0.724) for intensive care unit admission, and black, mixed, East Asian, and indigenous ethnicity (odds ratio=1.756, 1.564, 1.679, and 1.613, respectively) were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS:: Risk factors for intensive care unit admission and mortality among adult Brazilians were higher in men, obese individuals, and non-urban areas. Obesity was the strongest risk factor for intensive care unit admission and mortality.