15 Apr 2021
International journal of environmental research and public health;
: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic restrictions on the change in muscle mass in older patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), who were not infected with COVID-19.
In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from outpatients who underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis at least twice before April 2020 and at least once thereafter. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m
) was calculated as appendicular muscle mass (kg) divided by height squared (m
). Change in SMI (kg/m
/year) was calculated as (follow-up SMI-baseline SMI/follow-up period). The differences between the changes in SMI before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated using paired
This study recruited 56 patients, with a mean (SD) age of 75.2 (7.1) years. SMI changed from 6.7 (0.9) to 6.8 (0.9) kg/m
before the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas SMI changed from 6.8 (0.9) to 6.6 (0.9) kg/m
after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. SMI decreased after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with before the pandemic (-0.117 (0.240) vs. 0.005 (0.289) kg/m
= 0.049). This decrease was observed in men (-0.159 (0.257) vs. 0.031 (0.325) kg/m
= 0.038), patients with poor glycemic control (-0.170 (0.264) vs. 0.031 (0.285) kg/m
= 0.042), and those with a long diabetes duration (-0.153 (0.229) vs. 0.082 (0.291) kg/m
The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions caused muscle mass loss in older patents with T2D. Actions, including recommendation of exercise and adequate diet intake, are needed to prevent loss of muscle mass.