Vascular health and risk management;
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global pandemic with more than 60 million cases worldwide and over 1.5 million deaths by March 2021. Its outbreak has caused a huge burden on healthcare systems all over the world. Several studies in the medical literature have suggested that patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at higher risk for developing severe symptoms, poor prognosis, and high mortality rates. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CVD risk factors among COVID-19 patients based on the Framingham risk score (FRS), and to evaluate the association of CVD risk factors with clinical outcomes. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we identified 264 confirmed cases with COVID-19 at King Saud University Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients aged 18-80 years were included, and their electronic records were reviewed. They were classified into low, intermediate, and high risk of CVD according to FRS classification. Results: Two-hundred-six patients (67% male) were included in this study. The mean age was 55.3 ± 15.1 years. Most patients had comorbidities: the most common were hypertension (48.1%), diabetes (45.1%), and ischemic heart disease (11.2%). More than half required intensive care admission, and 58 (28.2%) patients died. Pneumonia was the most frequently observed complication (85%), followed by mechanical ventilation (28.3%) and acute kidney injury (27.7%). Age, male gender, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus showed significant differences between FRS categories, and were associated with intermediate and high-risk groups of FRS (p < 0.05). Pneumonia and length of stay were associated with the Intermediate risk group of FRS. Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent in Saudi patients infected with COVID-19. FRS could be a useful tool to identify CVD risk factors among COVID-19 patients and predict a complicated course.