09 Apr 2021
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland);
Prothrombin time (PT) is a significant coagulation (hemostasis) biomarker used to diagnose several thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications based on its direct correlation with the physiological blood clotting time. Among the entire set of PT dependents, candidates with cardiovascular ailments are the major set of the population requiring lifelong anticoagulation therapy and supervised PT administration. Additionally, the increasing incidence of COVID affected by complications in coagulation dynamics has been strikingly evident. Prolonged PT along with sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC score > 3) has been found to be very common in critical COVID or CAC-affected cases. Considering the growing significance of an efficient point-of-care PT assaying platform to counter the increasing fatalities associated with cardio-compromised and coagulation aberrations propping up from CAC cases, the following review discusses the evolution of lab-based PT to point of care (PoC) PT assays. Recent advances in the field of PoC PT devices utilizing optics, acoustics, and mechanical and electrochemical methods in microsensors to detect blood coagulation are further elaborated. Thus, the following review holistically aims to motivate the future PT assay designers/researchers by detailing the relevance of PT and associated protocols for cardio compromised and COVID affected along with the intricacies of previously engineered PoC PT diagnostics.