20 Apr 2021
International journal of molecular sciences;
There is increasing recognition of the importance of both the microbiome and vitamin D in states of health and disease. Microbiome studies have already demonstrated unique microbial patterns in systemic autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Dysbiosis also seems to be associated with allergies, in particular asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. Even though the effect of vitamin D supplementation on these pathologies is still unknown, vitamin D deficiency deeply influences the microbiome by altering the microbiome composition and the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. It also influences the immune system mainly through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). In this review, we summarize the influence of the microbiome and vitamin D on the immune system with a particular focus on allergic diseases and we discuss the necessity of further studies on the use of probiotics and of a correct intake of vitamin D.