15 Apr 2021
International journal of molecular sciences;
COVID-19 is a severe respiratory disease caused by the newly identified human coronavirus (HCoV) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was discovered in December 2019, and in March 2020, the disease was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to a high number of cases. Although SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the respiratory system, several studies have reported neurological complications in COVID-19 patients. Headache, dizziness, loss of taste and smell, encephalitis, encephalopathy, and cerebrovascular diseases are the most common neurological complications that are associated with COVID-19. In addition, seizures, neuromuscular junctions' disorders, and Guillain-Barré syndrome were reported as complications of COVID-19, as well as neurodegenerative and demyelinating disorders. However, the management of these conditions remains a challenge. In this review, we discuss the prevalence, pathogenesis, and mechanisms of these neurological sequelae that are secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aim to update neurologists and healthcare workers on the possible neurological complications associated with COVID-19 and the management of these disease conditions.