OBJECTIVES: Recent rampant spread of COVID-19 cases in nursing homes has highlighted the concerns around nursing homes' ability to contain the spread of infections. The ability of nursing homes to invest in quality improvement initiatives may depend on resource availability. In this study, we sought to examine whether lower profit margins, as a proxy for lack of resources, are associated with persistent infection control citations. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Medicare-certified nursing homes in the US with financial and facility characteristics data available (n=12,194). METHODS: We combined facility-level data on Medicare-certified nursing home profit margins from Medicare Cost Reports with deficiency citation data from Nursing Home Compare (2017-2019) and facility characteristics data from LTCFocus.org. We descriptively analyzed infection control citations by profit margins quintiles. We used logistic regressions to examine the relationship between profit margin quintiles and citations for infection prevention and control, adjusting for facility and market characteristics. RESULTS: About three-fourths of all facilities received deficiency citations for infection prevention and control during 1 or more years from 2017 to 2019 with about 10% of facilities cited in all 3 years. Facilities in the highest profit margin quintile had 7.6% of facilities with citations for infection prevention and control in each of the 3 years compared with 8.1%, 10.0%, 10.7%, and 13.7% for facilities in the fourth, third, second, and first quintiles of profit margins, respectively. Multivariable regressions showed that facilities with the lowest profit margins (first quintile) had 54.3% higher odds of being cited in at least 1 year and 87.6% higher odds of being cited in each of the 3 years compared with facilities with the highest profit margins (fifth quintile). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our findings indicate that nursing homes may need more resources to prevent citations for infection prevention and control.