The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major challenge to health systems worldwide. Recently, numbers of epidemiological studies have illustrated that climate conditions and air pollutants are associated with the COVID-19 confirmed cases worldwide. Researches also suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in fecal and wastewater samples. These findings provided the possibility of preventing and controlling the COVID-19 pandemic from an environmental perspective. With this review, the main purpose is to summarize the relationship between the atmospheric and wastewater environment and COVID-19. In terms of the atmospheric environment, the evidence of the relationship between atmospheric environment (climate factors and air pollution) and COVID-19 is growing, but currently available data and results are various. It is necessary to comprehensively analyze their associations to provide constructive suggestions in responding to the pandemic. Recently, large numbers of studies have shown the widespread presence of this virus in wastewater and the feasibility of wastewater surveillance when the pandemic is ongoing. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the occurrence and implication of viruses in wastewater and to understand the potential of wastewater-based epidemiology of pandemic. Overall, environmental perspective-based COVID-19 studies can provide new insight into pandemic prevention and control, and minimizes the economic cost for COVID-19 in areas with a large outbreak or a low economic level.