Mucocutaneous manifestations in children hospitalized with COVID-19
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous manifestations in hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2 have not been studied systematically. OBJECTIVE: To describe the mucocutaneous involvement in pediatric patients with COVID-19 admitted to a pediatric institution in Madrid (Spain), located in a zone reporting among the highest prevalence of COVID-19 in Europe. METHODS: A descriptive, analytical study was conducted on a series of 50 children hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and November 30, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients presented with mucocutaneous symptoms: 18 patients with macular and/or papular exanthem, 17 with conjunctival hyperemia, and 9 with red cracked lips or strawberry tongue. Eighteen patients fulfilled criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Patients with mucocutaneous involvement tended to be older and presented to the emergency department with poor general status and extreme tachycardia, higher C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels, and lower lymphocyte counts than patients without skin signs. Mucocutaneous manifestations pose a higher risk of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (odds ratio, 10.24; 95% confidence interval, 2.23-46.88; P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Children hospitalized with COVID-19 frequently had mucocutaneous involvement, with most symptoms fulfilling criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Patients with an exanthem or conjunctival hyperemia at admission have a higher probability of pediatric intensive care admission than patients without mucocutaneous symptoms.